The issue market is refers to has the stock from the plan to the sales entire process, the issue market is the call for fund obtains the fund directly the market. the new company's being established, the old company increases funding or offers loans, must through the issue market, probably draw support in has, the sales stock raising fund, causes the fund to enter in the demand hand from the supplier in the relay, is also transforms the deposit as the investment, thus creates the new actual assets and the monetary assets, increases the social total capital and productivity, promotes the social economy development, this is the basic-level market function.
1. issue market characteristic: First, not fixed place, may in the Investment bank, the Trust investment company and the negotiable securities company and so on place the occurrence, may also in the market the opening offer new stock; Two do not have the unification occurrence time, according to own needs to move toward by the stock publisher with the market quotation decided voluntarily when distributes.
2. has the market constitution: Has the market to be composed of three main body factor interconnection. These three are the stock publisher, the stock credit corroborative in both urban and rural areas and the stock investor. the publisher's stock issue scale and investor's actual investment ability, is deciding the issue market stock capacity and the developed degree; At the same time, to guarantee that has business's smooth advance, causes to have and the investors can realize own goal smoothly, acts as a purchasing agent and has exclusive selling rights the stock intermediary issue market, issues on another's behalf the traveler outstanding share, and charges the procedural fee to the publisher. Thus, the issue market take the credit corroborative in both urban and rural areas as a center, a relation publisher, a relation investor, positively in development stock issue.
3. stock issue way: Under the various countries' different politics, the economy, the social conditions, specially the monetary system and the money market management's difference causes the stock the release way is also many and varied; According to the different taxonomic approach, may summarize as follows
(1) public release does not come together with public release this according to the release object divides. The public release calls male solicits, is refers to does not have the specific release object beforehand, sells the stock publicly to the social general investors the way. selects this method, may expand shareholder's scope, the dispersion owns stocks, prevents to store up the stock or to operate by the small number of people, is advantageous in enhances company's sociality and the popularity, will be later collects more funds to build the foundation. increases the stock the merchantability and the conductivity. The public release may use the method which Joint-stock company sell directly, may also pay certain release expense to adopt the financial Facilitating agency proxy.
The public release is refers to the publisher only to the specific release object sales promotion stock way. Usually uses in two kind of situations: one is the shareholder share matching, also calls the shareholder to share, namely the Joint-stock company assigns this company's new stock subscriber power according to the stock face value to the original shareholder, mobilizes the shareholder to subscribe. This kind of new stock issue price often is lower than the market price, in fact becomes to shareholder's one kind gives favored treatment, generally the shareholders are glad to the subscriber. if some shareholders are not willing to subscribe, he may give up the new stock subscriber power automatically, may also transfer this kind of subscriber power other people, thus has formed the subscriber power transaction. two are the personal share matchings, also calls the third party to share, namely the Joint-stock company sells outside the shareholder the new stock minute this company staff, the intercourse customer and so on to have with the company the special relationship third party. selects this method often to stem from two kind of considerations: First, to press the preferential price to share the new stock for specific, shows to look after; Second, when the new stock issue encounters the difficulty, shares to the third party supports in order to, regardless of being the shareholder or personal sells on ration, because the release object is decides, therefore, does not need through male to solicit the way, not only this may save the request Facilitating agency's handling charge, reduces the cost of capital, but may also transfer the shareholder and the internal enthusiasm, item solid and development company's public relation. But the shortcoming is this kind of public release stock fluidity is bad, cannot publicize in the market transfers the sell, will also reduce Joint-stock company's sociality and the popularity, will also exist is offered a very low price with the holding danger.
(2) direct release and distributes this is indirectly sells the sell stock according to the publisher the way not to come together divides. The direct release calls the direct stock offering. Is refers to Joint-stock company to undertake stock issue all business and the release risk, sells the sell stock directly to the subscriber the way. when selects the direct release method, requests the publisher to be familiar with the stock offering procedure, the familiar stock offering technology and meets certain requirement. When if the amount of subscription cannot achieve the plan stock offering volume, the newly built Joint-stock company's initiators or the existing Joint-stock company's board of directors must subscribe the stock which sells. , is only therefore suitable in has decides the release object or the release risk are few, procedural simple stock. Generally, because public release's stock or the public release has the difficulty (for example prestige low result's market competitiveness difference, could not bear large quantity release expense and so on) the stock; Perhaps the strength is abundant, has confidence realizes large amount private solicits saves release expense the great Joint-stock company stock, only then uses the direct release the way. the indirect release calls the indirect stock offering, is refers to the publisher to entrust the securities issue Facilitating agency to sell the stock the way. These Facilitating agencies take the stock the sales promotion, handles all release business, undertakes certain release risk and withdraws the corresponding income.
The stock indirect release has 3 methods: one is sells goods for the state, is also called the proxy stock offering, the sales promotion is only responsible according to publisher's condition sales promotion stock, the proxy stock offering service, but does not undertake any release risk, sells how many in the stipulated time internal energy to calculate how many, expires still could not sell the stock to return for the publisher. Because distributes the risk and the responsibility completely undertakes by the publisher, the securities issue Facilitating agency is only is entrusted to replace the sales promotion, therefore, the selling goods for the state handling charge is low. two are sells on consignment, also said that Yu Gu acts as a purchasing agent, the stock publisher and the securities issue Facilitating agency signs the sales promotion contract to stipulate explicitly, in stipulated time, if the Facilitating agency actual sales promotion's result has not been able to achieve the contract provision the release amount, its differential part acts as a purchasing agent down by Facilitating agency. This kind of release method's characteristic is can guarantee that completes the stock issue specified amount, generally gains publisher's popularity, but because the Facilitating agency must undertake certain release risk, therefore sells on consignment the handling charge which the expense is higher than sells goods for the state. three are has exclusive selling rights, also the name buys up the stock offering, when distributes the new stock, the securities issue Facilitating agency disposable to buy completely first with own fund is going the public release stock, then sells gradually again according to the market quotation, the Facilitating agency earns business price difference. If has the unsalable stock, the Facilitating agency sells at reduced price or has, because the publisher may obtain fast plans the fund completely, but the sales promotion wants to undertake the release risk completely, therefore, has exclusive selling rights the expense to be higher than sells goods for the state spends and sells on consignment the expense. when stock indirect release actually uses which one method, the publisher and the sales promotion consideration angle is different, needs both sides to consult the determination. In general, the publisher mainly considered that he in the market prestige, the expenses time, the cost of capital and to sells the trust degree; The sales promotion main consideration undertakes the risk and can obtain income.
3) paid increases funding, free increases funding with matching increases funding this is defers to the investor subscribes time the stock whether pays the payment for shares to divide. Paid increases funding is refers to the subscriber to according to the stock some kind of issue price payment cash, Fang Neng obtain the stock one release way. the general public release's stock and private solicits the way which the shareholder share matching, the personal share matching use paid increase funding, uses this way outstanding share, may collect the capital stock directly from the outside, increases Joint-stock company's capital in cash. free increases funding, is refers to the subscriber not to need to pay the cash to the Joint-stock company to be possible to obtain the stock the release way, the release object is only restricted in the original shareholder, uses this way release the stock, cannot collect the capital stock directly from the outside management, but is depends upon the reduction Joint-stock company's common reserve fund or the earnings balance increases the capital in cash, the release way which generally only when the stock distributes dividends draws bonus, the stock split-up and the legal common reserve fund or the earnings extension make capital share matching uses free increases funding, the new stock free issue for the original shareholder, its goal is mainly in proportion divides for the shareholder the profit, heightens the shareholder confidence and the company prestige or to adjust the capital structure. because the free release must receive the sources of fund the limit, therefore, cannot use this way outstanding share frequently. Matching increases funding, is refers to the Joint-stock company when shares the new stock to the original shareholder, only lets the shareholder pay the issue price a part to be possible to obtain certain amount stock the way, for example the shareholder subscribes the currency value is 100 Yuan stocks, only needed the branch society 50 Yuan to be possible, other parts of free releases, arrived sufficiently by company's common reserve fund. This release way is also to the original shareholder's one kind of preferential benefit, can only collect the partial payment for shares again from their there, realizes the company to increase funding very quickly the plan.
The above these stock issue way, has the advantages and the condition restraint respectively, the Joint-stock company when the outstanding share, may select some method, may also concurrently pick several ways, various companies are embark from own actual situation, selects according to qualification. Presently, various countries use most are many, the most universal way are public and the indirect release